Nicolas Copernicus was born in 1473 at 19 february in Torun,
was a magistrate for life , his mother was the daughter
he was 10 years old and afther that his uncle
Copernicus received a good
In the beginning Copernicus was a schoolmaster in but in 1500 he started teaching mathematics privately in Rome. In 1543 Nicolas Copernicus died of a cerebral heamorrhage at the age of 70 in Frauenburg in Poland.
2. His contribution to science
Such a model
theories was in contrast with some theories
of important scientists who had published
them before him. Copernicus didnt
discard their theories completely. He looked
at their assumptions and kept the pieces of the puzzle which he felt made
In his new ordering, the Earth is just another planet (the third outward from the Sun), and the Moon is in orbit around the Earth, not the Sun. The stars are distant objects that do not revolve around the Sun. Instead, the Earth is assumed to rotate once in 24 hours, causing the stars to appear to revolve around the Earth in the opposite direction.The Copernican system by banishing the idea that the Earth was the center of the Solar System, immediately led to a simple explanation of the varying brightness of the planets . The planets in such a system naturally vary in brightness because they are not always at the same distance from the Earth.
saw that the planet
The idea of
Copernicus was not really new! because he added the ideas of Aristarchus who put the sun
at the center of the universe, and his own observations. Indeed a
Indeed asun-centered Solar System had been proposed as early as about 200 B.C. by Aristarchus of Samos (Samos is an island off the coast of what is now Turkey). However, it did not survive long under the weight of Aristotle's influence and "common sense": One of the questions raised by Aristotle was : if the Earth is actually on an orbit around the sun, why wasn't a parallax effect observed? That is : stars should appear to change their position with the respect to the other background stars as the earth moved about its orbit, because of viewing them from a different perspective. Indeed this objection is valid, but failed to account for what we now know to be the enormous distances to the stars. The parallax effect is there, but it is very small because the stars are so far away that their parallax can only be observed with very precise instruments which were only invented in the 19th century. Thus, the heliocentric idea of Aristarchus was quickly forgotten and Western thought stagnated for almost 2000 years as it waited for Copernicus to revive the heliocentric theory.
Copernicus is most famous for his heliocentric model. By making a heliocentric model and putting the
earth at a tilt, he made a model of the
universe that also was used for many other
observations he made, including retrograde motion, the daily movement of the stars and the
motion of the sun through the ecliptic.
model also fit with his religious beliefs. He said that God would have put the sun at the
centre of the universe because the sun was perfect. He
also thought that God would have created a simple universe and that his theory was quite
simpler than Ptolemys.
Copernican model was not complete. For instance , Copernicus said that the planets moved
in perfect circles and that they all moved all the time at the same speed just like
Aristotle already said. So he still needed the theory of Ptolemy to explain the irregular
motion of the planets. And his explanation didn't make clear why we dont feel the motion of the earth.
3.Other equal-thinking scientists
scientists continued working towards a geocentric model, more in line with Ptolemys
way of thinking. Just a few of them actually
defended the theory of Copernicus. For
Born: 27 December 1571 in Leonberg (in
the Holy Roman Empire (now Germany))
Died: 15 November 1630 in Regensburg (now in Germany)
He is now chiefly remembered for
discovering the three laws of planetary motion. He
also did important work in optics, discovered two new regular polyhedra, gave the first
mathematical treatment of close packing of
equal spheres, gave the first proof explaining how logarithms worked .
- Galileo Galilei :
Born: 15 February 1564 in Pisa (Italy) in Arcetri(Italy)
Died: 8 January 1642
He was a strong defender of
- Isaac Newton :
Born: 4 January 1643 in Woolsthorpe
Died: 31 March 1727 in London in England
Strong theoretical underpinning for the Copernican theory was
provided by Newtons theory of universal gravitation.
Computer programme : CABRI